Happy Mother’s Day to Bisera, Donka, Else, and all our mothers. May God bless you, today and forever, Forever.
For my mom, Bisera, I have accomplished a new beginning for me to research the American culture. During the Ph.D. program at Wayne State, I saw that the literature seriously describes three mores–and these mores are Independent Variables.
Each Independent Variable holds major core values that scientists may call the signals of each I.V. Using the signals, I will search through random samples of data on narrowly tailored topics to observe politics. I will observe the American culture in motion.
After I compile a dataset of news on the Patriot Act, for instance, I will “match” the data (each sentence) with a unique and discrete signal of liberalism, authoritarianism, or, Providence willing, republicanism.
So, this is what I do in my spare time, mom, RIP.
Signals of Authoritarianism (code 1-4):
1. The panopticon effect: Paternalism as domination.
A. State surveillance without people’s rights
B. State is secretive about security
C. State has power over the people, not people over state
D. Nationalism to leader / government more than patriotism to ideals
E. Power / agency formations top-down creating vertical hierarchies
a. Ascriptive hierarchy (e.g., slavery, public discrimination)
b. Top-down hierarchy (e.g. military).
2. Violations of civil liberties: The abandoning protection from a citizen’s
government, by the citizen’s government.
A. paternalism dictates rights and take political rights away, at will
B. Widespread governmental corruption of polity / society
a. denial of habeas corpus
b. denial of right to remain silent
c. denial of a lawyer with defense rights
d. denial to a speedy and fair trial
e. government engages search and seizure without probable
f. people arrested for publicly peacefully protesting
g. freedom of religion or belief systems denied to people.
3. Violations of civil rights: The abandoning protection for all to participate equally
in the polity and society by people, or at the hands of the government:
A. weighted voting for winners
B. exclusion of voters from politics
C. one party rule
D. non-party members excluded from political / social life
E. eliminate liberal neutrality
F. eliminate republican “worthwhile opportunity” (Geise 1984).
4. Stationary Ruler: An omnipotent authority.
A. Society exhibits high levels of fear
a. of government
b. of other people in society
B. congruence between authoritarian values and public opinion
C. A belief that the regime or leader is infallible.
Signals of Liberalism (Code 5-9):
5. Advancement of Lockean liberal values.
A. Liberal neutrality is a strong protection for free speech
B. Imposing Liberalism
a. Spread liberalism to countries not practicing liberalism
1. Spread of capitalism
2. Spread of representative government.
6. Admonishment of values hostile to Lockean liberalism.
A. Admonish hateful society
B. Admonish invasive state.
7. Expansion of democratic values.
A. Towards full protections of civil rights
B. Towards full protections of civil liberties
C. National public opinion is part of politics
D. Towards government transparency for the people
E. Linkage and leverage (linking capitalism / democracy to more people)
F “Free and Fair” elections” Procedural democracy
a. inter-party relations
b. intra-party relations
c. elections open to all citizens
d. admonish voter suppression
e. open campaigns
G. Independent Courts.
**Data coded as liberalism yet stinks of republicanism or authoritarianism should be secondarily coded as said element. These are probably the **smoking guns**
8. Progression of capitalism.
A. Bell curve distribution is ideal, but not necessary
B. Efficient and robust middle class, but not necessary
C. Conservatives understand inequality as a natural outcome
D. Progressives use capitalism to assist median voter and the poor
E. Protections of capitalistic markets and workers / owners by all.
9. Hartz’s toolkit—The common themes in Louis Hartz’s The Liberal Tradition.
A. Alger Myth (work hard and you will make the middle-class)
B. American democrat (a belief in individual development via capitalism)
C. Liberal enlightenment (enable the next, wiser, liberal regime)
D. Charm and terror (make money, work hard, and success follows; if you fail then you are the failure and not the system)
E. Hysteria after critical event (turning eccentricity into sin)
F. Transcended liberalism, no hysteria once next liberal regime arrives
G. Messianism (America is the greatest country of all time—par excellence!)
H. Whiggery (the citizen experiences a denial of faith in democracy)
I. Liberal imperialism (violence initiated against exogenous languages)
J. Liberal absolutism (no violence against fellow liberals only)
Signals of Republicanism (Code 10-15):
10. Enforce non-domination: Everyone is treated fairly at the table.
A. Advocate efficacy and worthwhile activity
B. Admonish vitiation, invigilation and intimidation
C. Admonish liberal neutrality
11. Local ideology [not localist]
A. Local associations are powerful
B. Local government salient domestically
C. People express opposition to policy directly
D. Local people expect national government to promote republicanism
as foreign policy—making rules to enable / incentivize local
people to participate globally.
12. Equitable civil rights: There are many formal and informal protections for people.
A. Much more than an equal opportunity by law among citizens
B. Stimulates equal resources for all citizens.
13. Grassroots activity will strongly advance a belief in civil liberties and rights.
A. Transparency by government for the people, by people
B. Purposeful and direct contestation by people
C. Direct participation by the people to direct the government
14. Economic Agenda based on efficacy and worthwhile activity
A. End rapacious capitalism
B. Promote not-for-profits / fair trade
C. Promote local government, education, small business partnerships
D. Promote common pool resources
E. Promote benefit corporations
15. Self-Government as an Extended Republic
A. Tracking citizen interests in voting
B. Tracking citizen interests in tax returns
C. Tracking public opinion is deliberative
a. what you think knowing x,y,z information
b. local government open to public opinion
c. local government records and distributes public opinion
d. public choice (move to preferred local government) salient
D. Likely a multiparty system
E. High levels of partisan debate / contention
F. High levels of compromise for action
a. low levels of single party dominance
G. Measure of voter suppression based on equitable opportunity
H. The right to instruct is demonstrated because the people instruct
the government on the issues, topics, and laws
d. ballot initiatives,
**Signals 1-4 describe Authoritarianism (later recoded as 1); signals 5-9 describe Liberalism (recoded 2), and signals 10-15 describe Republicanism (recoded 3).
***I do not offer a perfect or complete set of political values in regards to each element.