Roosting Justice, Roasting Conservatives.

Align Left: Professor                     Center: Student                         Align Right: Gadfly

  1. So how can you place the American state,
  2.  On a political map in political space;
  3.   When its legislation is all over the place!?
  4. Authoritarianism here… republicanism there…
  5.    And liberalism everywhere!
  6. The professor is keen:
  7. When different factions win legal commitments;
  8.  Win legitimate use of the state apparatus;
  9.    The right of coercion… for these languages;
  10.      Is this a scatter plot that you imagine!?
  11. I’d like to blow the whistle
  12.  On that possibility for,
  13. Value-added and biased  judgments.
  14. What have we been discussing,
  15. Other than the unique structures,
  16. Of liberalism and republicanism?
  17. And authoritarianism?
  18. Give me the broad stokes.
  19. Let suppose the existence,
  20. Of five great political languages.
  21. Of five structures that are structuring,
  22. Holding positions and taking-positions,
  23. In distinct political space…
  24. All Americans,
  25. Compete to install their favorite,
  26. as governance.[i] There is no pendulum!
  27. (1) Anarchy has no rules.
  28. (2) Authoritarianism governs via despotic rule,
  29. (3) Liberalism manifests democracy and capitalism,
  30. (4) Republicanism creates Governing the Commons,
  31. (5) Utopian rule is perfect and complete liberation.
  32. These five structures,
  33. Because of their position-takings,
  34. Create unique ethical systems,
  35. By which we can see clear indications,
  36. Of a state apparatus,
  37. Compared to the habitus,
  38. Of the other political languages.
  39. So you create indicators,
  40. And then apply falsification,
  41. Of five exogenous structures,
  42. Against the endogenous,
  43. Empirical evidence,
  44. Codified in every state apparatus.
  45. Regarding any state under inspection.
  46. Well, Urbinati doesn’t explain the ethics,
  47.    But the different “liberty” conceptions.
  48. Perhaps a causal relationship?
  49. Isn’t Liberty’s path partially advanced,
  50. Via the ethics available for use,
  51. By the citizen?
  52. If the citizen cannot participate,
  53. In republican transactions,
  54. Because no one has created,
  55. The mechanisms for denizens,
  56. To employ Governing the Commons,
  57. Then republican liberty, surely,
  58. Is limited.
  59. But Kroar, wouldn’t you invert Urbinati’s,
  60.   Neo-republican conception of liberty? See:
  61.   “the association of freedom with self-determining,
  62.     Democracy peculiar to a positive concept of liberty,
  63.       Which is, to them as to liberal theorists,
  64.        An open door to arbitrary interference”?
  65. Urbinati 2012, 609.
  66. Democracy + capitalism = liberalism.
  67. Yet too many centuries have our bonds,
  68. And our empirical horizons,
  69. Not been based on liberalism!
  70. Rather ascriptive hierarchy!
  71. A land of second class citizens!
  72. See Rogers Smith.
  73. See capitalism unchecked,
  74. Checked in the Great Depression.
  75. Capitalism–Yea, Conservatives;
  76. In liberalism, you will always see,
  77. Various ascriptive hierarchy!
  78. But to republicanism!
  79. Nay, this is legitimate exploitation!
  80. According to republicanism,
  81. Into an equitable society for every last denizen—
  82. By admonishing liberalism as weak and wrong…
  83. Pluralism as absolutism is nepotism’s prison.
  84. Long live the Patriots to ‘76!
  85. Liberalism will never get there!
  86. Republicanism, forever, our existence!
  87. That is republicanism’s position-taking.
  88. Yes.
  89. Perhaps Kroar’s journey,
  90. Is to locate Liberalism’s attorney.
  91. Briefly, what are your language indicators?
  92. Does each create unique liberty factors?
  93. In anarchy; liberty means,
  94. All are free to do as they please.
  95. But roving bandits begin to appear.
  96. And all fear one that is mean.
  97. Olsen 1993.
  98. In authoritarianism; liberty means,
  99. The person lower on the totem pole,
  100. Is completely subject to arbitrary interference:
  101. Gain power and become your real self.
  102. The dictator is here forever.
  103. I stop those roving bandits,
  104. From momentarily taking power.
  105. Olsen 1993.
  106. In liberalism; liberty means,
  107. All denizens are protected in opportunity,
  108. To become an entrepreneur or politician,
  109. Yes, the Alger Myth is succinct!
  110. Equal opportunity through democracy,
  111. Through capitalism,
  112. “The nation is voting.”
  113. Hartz 1955.
  114. But the people may vote for authoritarianism!
  115. What is the USA Patriot Act?
  116. Then liberalism is knocked down.
  117. But shall return in the next round,
  118. Or, perhaps, will be rescued from,
  119. A liberal defense in town,
  120. For the brawl is always going on!
  121. Particularly since republicanism;
  122. Encourages contestation!
  123. Kroar relaxed:
  124. In republicanism, liberty means;
  125. Individuals are only open to the possibilities,
  126. Of creating a more efficacious community,
  127. Where “the job” consists of worthwhile activity;
  128. The competition for recognition,
  129. That you improved the market,
  130. of “reach your potential”—
  131. With fellow citizens.
  132. That’s from Geise,
  133. 1984, I think.
  134. In utopia; liberty means,
  135. “I understand well enough how to be;
  136. And everybody does advance,
  137. Union in society.
  138. We are empirically and wholly:
  139. A noble and just community.”
  140. So in this essay, for APSA submission, you explore:
  141. Well now it’s for publication,
  142. Since I was denied presentation…
  143.  You explore the different hierarchy structures?
  144.       And the indicators to discover,
  145.          The precise placement of:
  146.             The world as we know it?
  147.               All the states that compose it?
  148. How they are composing political languages:
  149. Yes, I guess.
  150.    You explain political language as culture?
  151.     And not simply thought? This you propose?
  152.      Culture, over structure and institutions,
  153.        Is the numero uno indicator,
  154.           For measuring the trajectory,
  155.             Of political development?
  156. Quite bold.
  157. Quite bold!
  158. This essay is the theory.
  159. So I would know if there is a database,
  160. Explaining why some legislation,
  161. Won the right to experimentation,
  162. In light of the other political languages.
  163. Let us see: why didn’t republicanism,
  164. Create a non-authoritarian,
  165. Non-domination solution,
  166. To 9/11?
  167. Start that essay with Urbinati’s hypothesis:
  168.   “…the republican theory of liberty was forged
  169.     In the midst of polemical confrontations
  170.      Against two forms of arbitrary power:
  171.       That of the one (tyranny)
  172.        And that of the multitude (democracy).”
  173. Page 612.
  174. But republicanism has come a long way,
  175. Since the roman days!
  176. Even Hamilton argued that we must use,
  177. The best political science available!
  178. Imagine globalization, networks,
  179. Clashing cultures, and cleavages: by Zeus!
  180. Kroar turned his frustration,
  181. Into a short humble statement:
  182. My understanding is:
  183. Urbinati’s hypothesis finds knowledge,
  184. In-between authoritarianism and liberalism; structuring,
  185. In the state and society.
  186. Shklar uses this bifurcation too—
  187.    Democracy v. tyranny…
  188. Scholars as faction, I say.
  189. Oh wait! The professor,
  190. Is givin’ the student a break!
  191. Relating Kroar’s favorite faction,
  192. in this debate!
  193. Abbott argued against this in Exceptional America.
  194. American exceptionalism as central structure,
  195.    of political discourse; does not have much use for,
  196.        Authoritarianism as democratic commitment.
  197. Exceptionalism as liberalism–as American development!
  198. Kroar joined the tangent:
  199.            The Southern Civil War scholars were a detour,
  200.       Showing authoritarianism as incompatible,
  201.       Only the American liberal tradition endures.
  202.  Kroar cut in:
  203. But Aren’t Americans at heart republicans?
  204. And on all surfaces: liberal?!
  205. Perhaps America has always been:
  206. A republican tradition!
  207. How do you mean?
  208. What if our republic’s goals of control,
  209. are for a better nature?
  210. Kroar takes a green wooden block,
  211. From near the bookshelf,
  212. Looks at it and then sets it down,
  213. In-between their feet.
  214. Holding “green” position is capitalism and democracy;
  215. i.e. liberalism’s structure, see?
  216. But instead of measuring towards the core,
  217. Of authoritarianism’s inner circle;
  218. Kroar places a purple block,
  219. Twelve inches to the left,
  220. Of the green block, you see…
  221. I might begin; perhaps via rational choice,
  222. To delineate the games between,
  223. Liberalism and authoritarianism;
  224. Much like Shklar and Urbinati advance. Or…
  225. Republicanism’s block is red.
  226. I could delineate the games between,
  227. Liberalism and republicanism:
  228. Illuminating paths to Governing the Commons
  229. To more republican-liberal political experimentation!
  230. The professor made Kroar pause:
  231. The professor thought real hard.
  232. Kroar places a marble,
  233. Near the green block…
  234. There is America.
  235. Your hypothesis?
  236. I hypothesize:
  237. There are many undiscovered republican mechanisms;
  238. Or real jobs—for increasing isonomia…
  239.  
  240. As liberty.
  241. To organize more possibilities,
  242. For people to efficaciously engage,
  243. Worthwhile “common good” activity.
  244. If researchers started expounding,
  245. The essential tension seen,
  246. Between Hartzian liberalism and,
  247. Modern republicanism—to be keen;
  248. Designating positions and position-takings,
  249. Of republicanism and liberalism,
  250. Endogenously;
  251. Designating structures and their structuring,
  252. Of republicanism and liberalism,
  253. Exogenously;
  254. Perhaps I can help the polity,
  255. By researching these things…
  256. And perhaps, why liberalism and republicanism lost;
  257.     To an authoritarian beast?
  258. This may be different than Urbinati is proposing…
  259. Kroar is just beginning.
  260. So you say republicanism, from the utopian core,
  261.   This standpoint epistemology, you explore,
  262.      Or even from the republican core; for sure…
  263. Kant and Spinoza;
  264. Free at long last.
  265. Thanking Descartes,
  266. Doing the math.
  267. We have the research to see the steel structure,
  268. Of republicanism…
  269. And we know very well liberalism’s skin…
  270. Plenty of evidence of authoritarianism…
  271. Can researchers showcase the complex linguistic map?
  272. Can you show a multivocal political language—
  273.     One that is a “univocal historical force”
  274.        Since that is not today’s science of science?
  275. Ericson 1993, Page 5.
  276. In theory, if states cannot jump;
  277. From Anarchy to Liberalism,
  278. From authoritarianism to being Utopian,
  279. Or any other combination other than,
  280. See Appendix A; as proposed—
  281. The exact causal pathway that,
  282. I already articulated; then,
  283. That is one positive externality, herein.
  284. Let’s push this argument. Urbinati speaks,
  285.  “…democracy is different from popular government”
  286.    Even if republican scholars, “worry about ‘the tyranny,
  287.     Of the democratic elite, and the parliaments…” (see Pettit);
  288. Urbinati 610.
  289. Pettit 2001, 162.
  290. Liberalism allows demagoguery,
  291. And populism much legitimacy.
  292. Only republicanism has the antidote,
  293. For these authoritarian ways of governing!
  294. Urbinati relates that neo-roman republicans,
  295.    Label democracy with a “populist identity,”
  296.      And are therefore able to expunge it,
  297.         As a possibility. Do you agree?
  298. Page 610.
  299. Have you read Bourdieu, 2004?
  300. The “habitus” as the model to discover?
  301. The professor lied:
  302. Nope.
  303. Well, in short, the habitus is the essence,
  304. Of the scientist—and the scientist is external,
  305. To all other scientists—even if influenced,
  306. An certainly imperfect…
  307. I propose a mild gestalt shift.
  308. Take the ideal liberal professor,
  309. The ideal republican professor,
  310. The ideal authoritarian professor,
  311. And what do you get?
  312. The professor thought precisely:
  313. Three external structures as an accumulation of
  314.    Twenty-five centuries of “a way of doing things.”
  315. You have—well developed—but still developing entities,
  316.     Still bustling for new experimentation to become decreed.
  317. Kroar clasped his hands:
  318. Are these professors at all alike?
  319. Not at all.
  320. Wouldn’t they argue vehemently for students;
  321. For society,
  322. To understand and adopt their structuring policy?
  323. Indubitably!
  324. So it’s in Authoritarianism’s interest,
  325. Would you agree;
  326. to compromise with liberalism so that:
  327. They will be the majority…
  328. So yes: republicanism and liberalism,
  329. Are dichotomous variables.
  330. But remember that most of the languages,
  331. Spoken in this map of five cores,
  332. Occurs in-between the core structures.
  333. It’s true.
  334. In a republican land,
  335. Where the society and polity are placed,
  336. Near or in the republican core; accordingly,
  337. Democracy is not a salient conversation,
  338. It’s just bad taste.
  339. Democracy is so bitter,
  340. Especially when;
  341. Campaigns allow SuperPacs.
  342. What is this other than;
  343. Demagoguery manipulating populism,
  344. At its best!
  345. Republicans are not liberals.
  346. Republican society long ago transcended,
  347. Democracy and capitalism.
  348. And only those real conservatives,
  349. Desire liberalism’s plans!
  350. Most say, “More republicanism!
  351. Make Haste! Shake off your liberal chains!
  352. “Become your heart’s potential—contribute;
  353. Justice has come home to roost!”
  354. There is the bridge ‘tween thought and culture:
  355. Culturally, in their heads,
  356. Webs of significance—
  357. And conservatives really “get it.”
  358.                                           Now America, by legislative decrees;
  359. Is actually near liberalism; but still expunged,
  360. As Hartz said, America must still transcend!
  361. There is authoritarianism at America’s back!
  362. And ‘tis still a part of America’s state apparatus!
  363. And so conservative thought loudly snaps!
  364. Conservatives are really liberal defendants:
  365. Capitalists keeping their property close,
  366. Feeling taxes are legal violations for sure!
  367. Conservatives are really republican progressives:
  368. Seeking republicanism’s “less government!”
  369. Feeling attached to republican trends…
  370. But conservatives still acknowledge,
  371. Indeed legitimize–the inequality traps!
  372. But this is not legitimate,
  373. In the republican tradition!
  374. Oh, snap!
  375. Prima facie, a devastating mistake to make!
  376. Particularly when according to the map;
  377. Conservatives are positioned to see:
  378. Only authoritarianism’s helping hand!
  379. Especially while longing for the past!
  380. “Become your heart’s potential—contribute;
  381.    Justice has come home to roost!”
  382.      I like that, Kroar, I really do!
  383. ****************************
This poem uses: Urbinati. 2012. Competing for Liberty: The Republican Critique of DemocracyAmerican Political Science Review / Volume 106 / Issue 03 / August 2012, pp 607-621.

[i]  The model advocated in this essay may be general enough for all state political development worldwide with respect to finding the behavioral mechanism in all societies with respect to how the languages exchange capital—different states may reveal different paths for republicanism and liberalism to defeat authoritarianism in political negotiations. Some states, for example, may employ Islamic thought.

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  1. Pingback: Poetry Project: Political Languages | Political Pipeline

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