Political Science’s 2nd Law?

Align Left: Professor                     Center: Student                         Align Right: Gadfly

  1. My next appointment cancelled, Kroar.
  2. So we have some more time to find origins:
  3.  “Don’t political languages have unique structures,
  4.      Structuring unique ethical choruses?”
  5. Funny how often these academics,
  6. Smile; like they are playing chess,
  7. And foresee checkmate,
  8. Upon the opponent.
  9. Plato and Polybius hit the nail on the head,
  10. The ship of democracy blows via factious winds,
  11. All is based on public opinion.
  12. Worse, all the sailors are incompetent.
  13. Here, today, Hartz was right; America lives wholly in:
  14. But America was founded by republicans!
  15.    How do you explain those elite actions?
  16. Prof’s face looks like a wolf,
  17. Or maybe ‘tis a deutsche shepherd?
  18. Too early to fully know,
  19. If Teach’s guiding or hiding,
  20. Gordon Wood’s monumental…
  21. The Idea of America
  22. Americans are guaranteed by Article Four…
  23. The constitution as social contract…
  24. Locke!
  25. “The United States shall guarantee to every State,
  26.     in this Union a Republican Form of Government.”
  27. Prof. commanded the manner,
  28. By which “Republican” was uttered.
  29. A drawl so slow;
  30. You’d think it an iterated stutter.
  31. According to my spatial model,
  32. Of political languages;
  33. The people are indeed guaranteed
  34. A republican government, but,
  35. The people spent their first
  36. Two hundred and fifty years;
  37. Destroying authoritarianism—
  38. In society and polity,
  39. And identity.
  40. But that means 2037…
  41. Yes. According to my spatial and temporal map,
  42. I project;
  43. America will finally move into the core of liberalism in 2037.
  44. Finally authoritarianism is absent,
  45. In American political development.
  46. Finally Hartzian transcendence,
  47. Has happened.
  48. What!? Into liberalism’s core?
  49.     Why not in republicanism’s front door?!
  50. Empirically.
  51. Rational choice,
  52. New institutionalism,
  53. Behaviorally?
  54. What your theory?!
  55. There is a second Law of politics.
  56. The first being Duverger’s.
  57. The natural order of the languages:
  58. Anarchy, controlled by authoritarianism.
  59. Authoritarianism, controlled by liberalism.
  60. Liberalism, controlled by republicanism.
  61. Republicanism, controlled by utopians.
  62. This means?
  63. A regime or a state, empirically;
  64. Is spatially locatable:
  65. Here’s Appendix A.
  66. Now, America is spatially placed,
  67. Outside the liberal core,
  68. And authoritarianism still creates rapport,
  69. In the American culture.
  70. And the law? I’m intrigued…
  71. In America, an increasing of liberalism;
  72. Is the same decrease in authoritarianism,
  73. Even though it feels differently.
  74. Gay rights, take for instance,
  75. Must advance. On the other hand,
  76. President Obama may not order the assassination,
  77. Of a denizen—liberalism indicators herein;
  78. Are violated by the American state apparatus.
  79. This is true of American history;
  80.    And you certainly have Hartz theories…
  81. The core of liberalism,
  82. Bans from its authentic system;
  83. The lack of inclusion,
  84. As well as the hierarchy and actions,
  85. Of roving and stationary bandits.
  86. Read Olson (1993).
  87. And the law is true when America,
  88.   Is located in 200 years time,
  89.    In-between liberalism and republicanism?
  90.      How do you see it, Kroar, opine…opine!
  91. The long-term trajectory,
  92. Is for America to lead,
  93. In Becoming republicans; do heed!
  94. An increase in republicanism,
  95. Is a decrease in liberalism.
  96. And on and on!
  97. The authoritarian core,
  98. Liberal and republican cores;
  99. Hold complete and perfect commanders,
  100. Or legislators, or principals… as you prefer;
  101. Respectfully, living at home?
  102. It’s quite complex…
  103. The 3 factions:
  104. republicanism, liberalism, authoritarianism;
  105. Perfectly and completely function!
  106. They impose 1,000 plans;
  107. Against the others in,
  108. In-between competition,
  109. And wait to see the peoples’,
  110. Social and political developments!
  111. Let me make a connection…
  112. Physicists explain stars’ strength,
  113.   By the habits of their rules and regulations.
  114. They measure distance by, seriously, light years;
  115.   And you are proposing to, seriously, explain culture…
  116. Are these sound years we hear as different languages,
  117.    By different generations? These exogenous things:
  118. Structuring structures, positions and position-takings!?
  119. Kroar hated Nietzsche’s
  120. Eternal recurrence theme.
  121. But Kroar certainly did embrace,
  122. The overman’s will to create!
  123. Republicanism requires equity;
  124. Not equal opportunity.
  125. This becomes the strong position-takings,
  126. Of republican activists advocating:
  127. “Down with liberal neutrality!
  128. Remove the inequality that we see,
  129. ‘tis unethical by human nature; we all decree!”
  130. Why?
  131. This 18-35 generation in 2013;
  132. Does begin many non-profits, surely.
  133. Is this the generation of small r;
  134. Republicanism, emergence?
  135. Resurgence!?
  136. Society and the polity advocate legislation,
  137. Based on the peoples’ observable circumstances.
  138. Because of America’s placement;
  139. Expect the salient conversations,
  140. To concern national funding and regulation—
  141. Being in-between authoritarianism and liberalism;
  142. For republicanism changes it,
  143. To local governing structures; take it.
  144. The problem with being a conservative;
  145. In looking backward,
  146. Is that back then—there was
  147. More authoritarianism associated with,
  148. Any given commitment.
  149. So in theory, or as you suggest—in fact;
  150.   America is spatially located near liberalism,
  151.     With authoritarianism at its back?
  152. In 2037, you predict;
  153.   America will of liberalism completely transcend,
  154.     And thereby not violate any of liberalism’s ethics…
  155. Physics book have so many laws;
  156. Accepted-permanent rules and regulations,
  157. With few random error flaws.
  158. An increase in Core C is a decrease in Core B.
  159. A state that increases liberalism,
  160. By definition;
  161. Decreases authoritarianism.
  162. And once a state is in Core C—
  163. Liberalism;
  164. It’s empirically taking position C;
  165. In everything.
  166. It violates the indicators of Core D…
  167. What about the Civil War?
  168. An impetus to become dangerous!
  169. Harken me to Hartz!
  170. To Fitzhugh’s “conservative” label,
  171. Taken from him by Culture’s order.
  172. It would be given to McKinley,
  173. whom Fitzhugh would have hated,
  174. With a violent passion—one from the plucking of:
  175. Liberalism’s sons and daughters.
  176. For Whom the gun went off;
  177. And there is much trauma.
  178. Republicanism’s patriotism is much different,
  179.  Than liberalism’s quest for power and riches;
  180.    But equity nor liberalism are apparent,
  181.     Here in Detroit! The Land of Vacant Lots!
  182.  A culture of republicanism is not,
  183.   Encapsulating society—closure of,
  184.    Citizens action groups to the point where,
  185.      Every community is safe and,
  186.        All the children are very well educated!
  187.  This is not a normative paper!
  188. The professor’s face saddened.
  189. Kroar’s remained content.
  190. Local governments in America,
  191. Fundamentally take care of the people,
  192. In trash removal and other conditions.
  193. Local governments are “achieving participation.”*
  194. Think of economic gardening.[i]
  195. *Lovett 2010, Pettit 1997.
  196. Urbinati, page 608.
  197. Liberal governments are not designed to tackle,
  198.     Arbitrary interference by the system’s elites.
  199. However, that is part of republican ethics
  200. Ibid. Ibid.
  201. Ethics are a result of the structuring,
  202. Of the language produced from the structure;
  203. Of hierarchy, of power-relations, of agency:
  204. Republicanism is equitable distributions.
  205. Liberalism is equal opportunity de jure,
  206. Relations, decisions, and implementation.
  207. I guess Bellah’s dialogues,
  208. Do contain an ethical creed.
  209. And I know you cherish Spinoza,
  210. Kroar, and the ethics for science;
  211. Many could foresee.
  212. Democracies solve collective action problems,
  213.    By forcing the hand of legislators in office.
  214. Republican governments solve collective action problems,
  215.    Via depoliticized juridical procedures of political contestation;
  216.       Impartial decisions from independent local commissions!
  217. Right. Elinor Ostrom,
  218. Illuminated republicanism’s political sight;
  219. The informal and formal rules that ignite,
  220. An alternative to government intervention,
  221. And privatization.
  222. Public policy as republicanism:
  223. See economic gardening; or,
  224. Every other local-state-community,
  225. Mechanism for economic development.[ii]
  226. Governing the Commons;
  227. A republican social contract,
  228.    At great heights. Magnificent!
  229. In authoritarianism,
  230. Expect massive inequality.
  231. In liberalism,
  232. Massive inequality,
  233. Is de facto legitimate,
  234. So long as every citizen
  235. Has the de jure opportunity,
  236. To make it; you see:
  237. The regulations and rules governing,
  238. Liberalism as liberty.
  239. In republicanism,
  240. Massive inequality is absent.
  241. Do not underestimate,
  242. The difficult, but necessary;
  243. Conditions for transcendence.
  244. What is the United Nations;
  245. Other than an exemplar,
  246. Of republicanism,
  247. For Earth’s denizens?
  248. Dunn (2005) and others agree:
  249.    The language of republicanism,
  250.        Does not talk about democracy.
  251. Dunn 54.
  252. Urbinati 609.
  253. I suppose Rogers Smith’s
  254. Multiple traditions in America,
  255. Is part of Kroar’s model.
  256. American political development:
  257. I argue that American political development;
  258. Is very much like Hartz’s two blind boxers.
  259. 1955.
  260. Abbott, the distinguished one at Wayne,[iii]
  261.    Illuminates the complexity
  262.     of American Exceptionalism,[iv]
  263.      Which you seem to equate…
  264.      To political language’s rules and habits…
  265.         Their plain meaning.
  266. Republicanism speaks, indeed breathes;
  267. Differently than their liberal friends during coffee…
  268. Differently than their authoritarian companions,
  269. Conniving more vertical hierarchy.
  270. The Federalist Papers “criticized democracy,
  271.    As the rule of the lower classes and took care,
  272.      To distinguish it from the republic…”[v]
  273. Kroar radiated a grateful stare.
  274. Montesquieu distinguished the two too;
  275.    And we know that Montesquieu,
  276.       Was Madison’s oracle—his muse in use!
  277. Kroar’s eyebrows lowered,
  278. As he became stiff,
  279. And more aware:
  280. Yet Urbinati states:
  281. “Today, republicanism and democracy,
  282. Are practically held as synonymous.”
  283. Page 609.
  284. That is because political scientists since WWII,
  285.     Note liberalism [from F.D.R. on]; and indeed prove,
  286.       Democracy is not necessarily mob rule.
  287. Scientists greatly distinguished private citizens versus,
  288.     Being a good citizen.
  289. There are observable differences between,
  290.    Informal public opinion and public deliberation.
  291. What is the public school system other than;
  292.    The realization of self-interested participation,
  293.       Collaborating for preferred levels of the,
  294.        Collective action accomplishments,
  295.          “as conditions for political equality,”
  296.             For the society to create and enjoy,
  297.               via legitimate tax submissions…
  298. Here are possible good liberal,
  299. Or republican citizens.
  300. Republican liberty is more difficult to attain,
  301.  Than liberal liberty; since, republicans
  302.   “cultivate the crucial quality” of Cicero’s virtus,
  303.     As the means to political ends.    
  304. Skinner 1993, 303,
  305. Urbinati 2012, 609.
  306. Then again, republicanism wasn’t well known,
  307. Until the accumulation of investigations,
  308. Evaluated in the 1980s—it’s well known:
  309. This massive scientific shake-down.
  310. Rodgers (1992):
  311. The Career of a Concept.
  312. Now I seek republicanism in use.
  313. Or use rational choice,
  314. And find the paths not taken,
  315. My companion,
  316. Choose.
  317. Recall Urbinati: “neo-roman republicans…
  318.  Emphasize the importance of self-government,
  319.   But construe it as a means to secure individual liberty,
  320.    That is nondeterminant. They see it not as essential to protect,
  321.      Individual liberty, but to form virtues and good citizenship,
  322.       Basic conditions for making institutions work well,
  323.        And to enable citizens to support these institutions with trust,
  324.         Not simply consent.”
  325. Urbinati 2012, 609.
  326. Again an essential tension,
  327. Between republicanism and liberalism,
  328. As unique structures; and upon each other,
  329. Taking positions. Wielding agency and power.
  330. Again, republicanism wins.
  331. Yes. Empirically someone must win!
  332. Empirically, there are factions—
  333. That imagine they did!
  334. So according to my language map; see:
  335. The Patriot Act is authoritarianism,
  336. Keeping the American state free from anarchy.
  337. And gun laws are wholly liberal…
  338. When you can buy an automatic rifle,
  339. on the street.
  340. And the Bill of Rights resolutions,[vi]
  341. Passed by efficacious interest groups,
  342. Are the language of republicanism,
  343. Returning America’s trajectory…
  344. Indemnifying the people,
  345. From the USA Patriot Act,
  346. Progress, for liberals, empirically…
  347. This is my dissertation;
  348. Here unveiled.

This poem uses: Urbinati. 2012. Competing for Liberty: The Republican Critique of DemocracyAmerican Political Science Review / Volume 106 / Issue 03 / August 2012, pp 607-621.

[i] Economic gardening is collaboration between (1) local job growth demands, (2) local government officials hiring economic developers (e.g. GIS), (3) higher education job training capabilities, and (4) expanding the local businesses into second stage and beyond. See: http://www.mcrsa.org/Assets/Documents/Proceedings/MCRSA%202011%20Conference%20Proceedings.pdf

[ii] An introduction to economic gardening is in the 2011 Mid-Continent Regional Science Association. See: mcrsa.org/Assets/Documents/Proceedings/MCRSA%202011%20Conference%20Proceedings.pdf

[iv] Abbott argues that political scientists must account for the different ways we speak, politically, in any scholarly journal. Meaning, an analysis in America should consider the complexity of American exceptionalism. My model accounts for America, but may be more useful in comparative research. This is because authoritarian, liberal, and republican core indicators (working paper) are measurable in all states / regimes.

[v] Page 609.

[vi] Vasi and Strang (2009)


2 thoughts on “Political Science’s 2nd Law?

  1. Pingback: A Case for ‘republicanism’ Before Lincoln (an R1 APD) | Political Pipeline

  2. Pingback: Poetry Project: Political Languages | Political Pipeline

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