B. C. Smith
Elites breakdown: [top down-endogenous]
- the transition is illuminated via an alleviation of repression, a wave of political association and expression, and negotiations between the elites. Many elites transition because it is in their own best interest; they negotiate the transitional elements and form pacts to protect interest groups (228).
Domestic Crisis—allowing democracy to surface [bottom up-endogenous]
- Economic crisis,
- Also, populism may create a transition; instead of an elite breakdown, such as in Benin (Smith, 231).
- International Pressure may “enforce” democratic assimilation [exogenous]
- Huntington’s analysis that 75 percent of third wave countries were catholic and the Catholic Church actively called for democratization
O’ Donnell and Schmitter (1986)
- Hard-liners [maintain authoritarian regime] v. Soft liners [seek democratization]
- Endogenous resurrection of civil society
- Negotiated pacts between the “liners” sets new rules for power
- Liberalization can exist without democratization (10).
- Individual level: elements of liberal tradition (e.g., habeas corpus, privacy, fair trial, free speech) (7).
1. Citizenship: equal protection under the law. No President is above the law.
2. The Procedural Minimum: secret ballot, universal suffrage, regular elections,
partisan competition, associational recognition and access, representative accountability (8).
3. Former rules of citizenship applied to:
Former [deficient] regime (coercive control, social condition),
Expanded to persons not previously covered ( nontaxpayers, foreigners, minorities),
Extended into institutions not previously covered (state agencies, military, parties, education) (8).
- Stability in democratizing institutions
- “Elite Settlement” helps found the democratic regime
- “Elite convergence” contributes to its survival
- Important to extend participation to all elites
- Announcement of election: cconstituent assembly
- Formation of political parties
- The election becomes the founding event
- Free and lively civil society
- Relatively autonomous and valued political society
- Rule of law
- Institutionalized economic society
Bratton and van de Walle (1997)
Political Mobilization and Protest
1. Political competition
- Number of trade unions allowed by previous regime
2. Political participation under old regime—number of elections
3. A and B account for roughly half the variation in political protest
Political Liberalization and Constitutional Reform
- Important to hold a national conference on reform
- Highly correlated to incidence of protests
2. Restricted forms of political of political competition
- Measured by the size of the largest parliamentary party
Founding Democratic Elections
- Very little effect of economic factors
- Function of interaction between military actors and mass protesters, domestic political actors, and the institutionalization of the opposition
- Importance of domestic political actors OVER international economic and political factors.
Bunce, Comparative Democratization, Big and Bounded Generalizations
Breaking with Authoritarian Rule
- Political leaders are central to the founding and design
- Survival v. collapse of democracy
- Pacting should not be a half-way house between democracy and dictatorship
Building Democratic Institutions
- Democratic consolidation prior to economic liberalization
- Authoritarian elites try to trade political ownership for economic ownership
- Economic winners get a huge stake in system, losers ostracized
- National consensus about democracy needed—focus
- Economic agenda could stifle-limit democratic consolidation
- Parliamentary systems appear to be better than presidential systems
3. The nation and the state
- Settled borders
- Definition of the nation and description of nationalism
4. Nationalism is wanton: may demobilize or mobilize
5. A strong state is a guarantor of democracy
- Rule of law enforced
- Civil society encouraged to proliferate
Devising Ways to Elicit the Cooperation of the Former Authoritarian Elite
- Political elites play a central role in democratization
- Democratization depends “heavily on the interests, values, and actions of the political leaders, whether ensconced, downwardly mobile, or upwardly mobile.
- This applies to all three waves of democratization