Without Repression, Without Riots.

Left: Professor                             Center: Student                              Right: Gadfly

  1. Moore digs deep into the moral change and atrocities sustained,
  2.    The travelling over long voyages that occurs before exchange;
  3.        Sorting through centuries of iterated, political games.[i]
  4. New political pictures appeared over time,
  5.     From monarchy and kingdoms,
  6.        To oligarchy and semi-democracy,
  7.        To communism, fascism and democracy.
  8.     Thus Moore explains predicaments:
  9.         A path toward modernization, or,
  10.             Something very different.
  11. The professor paused,
  12. Searching for bleeding hearts,
  13. Among this crowd.
  14. Do you have to fight to be free?
  15. Can one rationally judge progress with a capital P?
  16. Which human costs were undeniably,
  17. A mistake worth not repeating?
  18. An usually quiet student,
  19. Took center stage:
  20. There has never been a significant instance,
  21. When Progress didn’t force,
  22. Exploitation upon a populace.
  23. Every person, even the ignorant peasant,
  24.    Plays the societal game of value exchange.
  25. In life’s game, even the ignorant peasant,
  26.    Judges whether or not what they get,
  27.        Is equitable compared to what they gave.
  28. Now let’s get into some of the basics,
  29.    The findings of Moore’s analysis.
  30. “…it was massive violence exercised,
  31.    By the upper classes against the lower…”[ii]
  32. Again a long pause.
  33. So your rich uncle had a tempter.
  34.    Would every poorer family check that member?
  35. For no society has yet formed a government,
  36.    To answer this conundrum.
  37. Equity is objective.[iii]
  38. When does revolution costs outweigh,
  39.     The greater tragedy to be overplayed?
  40. Certainly the Russian experience displays,
  41.     That revolution was not worth the bodies,
  42.          Stalin ordered: “to your grave.”[iv]
  43. But he is critical of democracies too.
  44. Moore does not find evidence that the people desired,
  45.    Industrialization.
  46. Industrialization was a form of revolution from above,
  47.    The work of a ruthless minority.
  48. Relationships between peasants and lords,
  49. Creates unique priorities.
  50. Everywhere today is the process of urbanization,
  51.    And less dependence is upon agricultural populations,
  52.        Along the path to modernization.
  53. Economic success is at times awesome,
  54. In dictatorships.
  55. 20th century Germany and Japan, even going back to,
  56.          American slave plantations,
  57.     Highlight economic success at the expense,
  58.            Of human liberation.
  59. And don’t think that since communism failed,
  60.     That stains of anti-equity, anti-humanity, and anti-liberty;
  61.          Are removed from politics and forgotten.
  62. So Moore is extremely useful,
  63. As a tool to develop,
  64. More humane conduits,
  65. To activate the political sphere,
  66. And politics.
  67. Yes. I credit Moore for organizing this ongoing discussion.
  68. Once upon a time, most states were agrarian;
  69.    Most of the population lived off the land.
  70. But then, there was industrialization,
  71.    And governments experienced transitions.
  72. Recall, there once rested a class living off the land,
  73.    They just hired workers; called peasants.
  74. These two groups were engulfed by modernization,
  75.    Yet governments experienced different trajectories,
  76.        There was fascism, communism, and democracy.
  77. Moore’s study hence explores the facets and complications,
  78.    Within governmental development.
  79. And during Moore’s time, he says,
  80. People assumed that industrialization,
  81. Was the cause of totalitarianism.
  82. Thus the historical and structural analysis.
  83. Right. There were three routes to the governments.
  84.    The bourgeois revolutions led to democracy,
  85.       We witness violent changes in American, French,
  86.           And English societies.
  87.    Here, there were groups in society economically independent,
  88.        Gaining the power to create public policy with the old regime,
  89.             Transforming the state from an absolute king,
  90.                  To a powerful state controlled by landed elites.
  91.    If the landed elites opposed democracy, we see,
  92.         Civil war or revolution penetrated completely.
  93.    Of course, exceptional America never had a peasantry,
  94.         All the same, landed elites moved toward democracy.
  95.    Again, an “independent class of town dwellers has been,
  96.         An indispensable element in the growth of parliamentary democracy.
  97.                 No bourgeois, no democracy.”[v]
  98. What’s the second route?
  99. When the traditional state is strong,
  100.    And commercialized agriculture is not,
  101.       Then a revolution from above: Fascism;
  102.            Might arise and not stop.
  103. Moore calls this the capitalist and reactionary form,
  104.      Where the weak bourgeois elites swap,
  105.           Liberty for more economic turns.
  106. Communism is the third route.
  107. Russia and China enforced great agrarian bureaucracies,
  108.    But unfortunately, the results, by the weak urban elite,
  109.       Stalled and averted commercial and industrial interests,
  110.           In society.
  111. ‘though the revolution was declared to cure the peasantry of ailments,
  112.     The ongoing results showcased the peasants as victims:
  113.          Many crimes were committed.
  114. Of course there is room for middle-ground,
  115.     Whereas Moore understands,
  116.         In India [a fourth route] abounds;
  117.              A weak impulse for modernization,
  118.              A place where the former 3 routes,
  119.                 Are perhaps still underground.
  120. So: the landed upper classes and the peasants,
  121.     In bourgeois revolutions, created,
  122.         Capitalist democracy.
  123. The bungled bourgeois revolutions, created,
  124.         Fascist regimes.
  125. The peasant revolutions created the communist setting.
  126. Hear one of those eighteen year olds,
  127. Entering the dissertation mode:
  128. This clearly has implications for Marxists.
  129. Very confounding, I think;
  130. We must need two hundred more years.
  131. That’s when working economies:
  132. Equitable and inclusive profit sharing companies;
  133. Will let go of governmental fears.
  134. Thank you for that.
  135. According to Moore, political institutions emerged,
  136.    In nations whereby the middle class controlled,
  137.     The transition of industrialization,
  138.     The political curves.
  139. There was no peasant revolt.
  140. About ten students desired to yell:
  141. No bourgeois, no democracy!
  142. One took command:
  143. In Russia and China, the landed upper classes failed,
  144. To commercialize agriculture.
  145. Thus revolution from below.
  146.    Another overrode:
  147. The results of the peasants’ revolts were communism.
  148. Brainchild felt alive:
  149. Of course despotism is not the same as communism.
  150. Communism is very different.
  151. It’s equitable and inclusive!
  152. The bourgeoisie never needed a coercive state,
  153. Nor do middle class entrepreneurs!
  154. As it relates to this structural frame.
  155. Kroar chimed in:
  156. The French aristocrats, or land owners;
  157. Extracted a high surplus from the peasants,
  158. And resentment turned into revolt.
  159. But the British commercialized agriculture,
  160. Via the abolishment of the peasantry!
  161. This leads us toMoore’s conception of exploitation.
  162. Unfortunately,
  163. He looked fixedly on the young genius:
  164. There is no land today where the majority,
  165. Of rich people walk around saying,
  166. “That’s enough money for me.
  167. “I’m going to give all future profits back to the people,
  168. At my profit-making company.”
  169. He returned his eyes to the professor:
  170. Then again; no one says something like that.
  171. Here, equity’s a “sin” and greed is “progress.”
  172. Kroar paused and was surprised,
  173. That everyone remained silent.
  174. Though Moore was too easy on culture;
  175. His triumph was to process structure.
  176. In all the nations Moore studied,
  177.    There was a significant power-balance presiding,
  178.    Over the landed aristocrats and the central government;
  179.          The future of stability being decided.
  180. If you find an absence of the former,
  181.    A weak aristocracy makes peasantry revolt more likely,
  182.    A strong central government makes repression seem nice;
  183.            The future is one of domination and dividing.
  184. There are reasons why reality,
  185. The professor stared at Kroar:
  186.    Has structure for legality; and, morality.[vi]

[i] This begins an analysis of: Moore. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge: Beacon Press.

[ii] Page 29.

[iii]Denmark, considering Inglehart and Flanigan [see Parties and Voting Behavior poetry book], is certainly a possible case study [hypothesis] showing otherwise.

[iv] There was time for Lenin’s followers to remove Stalin. However, the overall point is that the revolution in Russia got out of control, brought back in—but then downward spiraled for many decades [considering the atrocities endured by all people]. Thus the large discussion between inertia [status quo] and Progress.

[v] Page 418.

[vi] Alternate ending: Being middle class isn’t a riot.

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One thought on “Without Repression, Without Riots.

  1. Pingback: Learn Comparative Politics–Week 2 Reading « Political Pipeline

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