The Bureaucracy and Military in Developing Countries

  The bureaucracy and the military are institutions that concentrate political power and they are each described as among the most powerful political institutions in the developing world.  I will briefly compare these institutions: the relationship of each to the state, the sources of power for each, and institutional pathologies. I will mention the role…

Transition to Democracy from Authoritarianism

B. C. Smith defined democracy as a governmental / political system which provides: (1) competition between individuals and groups, (2) political participation to select leaders and policy, (3) civil and political liberties to enforce high levels of the former two points, (4) representative governments or parliaments, (5) bureaucratic responsibility to government, (6) free and fair…

Patterns of Competition: ICE, Part 3

Left: Professor                    Center: Student                       Right: Gadfly In Identity, Competition and Electoral Availability (ICE); 1990,[1]      Part IV explores competition and identity. I’m going to highlight the parts I find meaningful, see;      What I say should allow you to create a new paper for me…             To co-author, to publish—indeed! The number of parties is…

Do You Live in a Democracy?

  Democratization and its Limits        Definition: Zakaria defines and understands the limits of democratization via liberalism or illiberalism.[1]  To Zakaria, “democracy has meant liberal democracy—a political system marked not only by free and fair elections, but also by the rule of law, a separation of powers, and the protection of basic liberties of speech, assembly,…

A Developing State

The state is the sum of legitimate institutions that create and enforce the norms of society.  Evans[i] explains that he will study how the state will promote industrial growth, while Migdal[ii] researches variables that differentiate a strong state from a weak state. For Migdal, strong states have strong central governments that may permeate society at…

Nationalism: A Definition

In 1991, Schmitter and Karl wrote an article for the Journal of Democracy entitled: “What Democracy Is…. and Is Not.”  Anderson, Posner and Snyder do not explore democracy, rather, nationalism.  This brief post will explain what nationalism is… and is not. Anderson did not see nationalism as a departing value, rather, a “universally legitimate value…